New York

New York is one of the largest cities in the world. Its population is over 11 million people. New York is an industrial and cultural centre of the country. Most business is centred in Manhattan Island. The whole area is very small, that's why the sky-scrapers were invented in New York and, especially, in Wall Street. Wall Street is a narrow street with big houses, but it is well known all over the world as the busiest street in the USA. People do business there. There are two more world-famous streets — Broadway and Fifth Avenue. Broadway is the centre of the theatres and night life. It is known as “The Great White Way” because of the electric signs which turn night into day.

It is the city that ne

My way of diet

People in different countries have different ideas about what is good to eat and what is the best diet for them. So, we live in a country where breakfast is a very rich meal. We have not only roll with butter, jam of honey, but ham or sausage and fried eggs or porridge as well. Tea is taken at breakfast more often than coffee.

Political system of US

Washington, the capital of the United States is situated on the Potomac River in the District of Columbia. The district is a piece of land which doesn't belong to any state but to all the states. All these states are sovereignty. Under the Constitution, the federal government is div

Role of Women in Society

From a legal point of view, a man and a woman in Russia are equal. However, in practice, there are no real mechanisms of women’s rights fulfillment as well as for their active participation in social life. Such questions as women and their place in the society, their political and social activity as well as enlightening of those problems in mass media; questions of creation of informational data-base as well as maternity and childhood cannot be effectively solved by governmental bodies, especially in the situation of economic crisis. That is why it is important today to assist the creation of such mechanisms through the activation of women’s public organizations. And non-governmental

Sport and healthy lifestyle

As for me, I'm interested in different kinds of sport. At school we have physical training lesson twice a week. I like to ski in winter. Sometimes the whole family goes skiing at the weekend. In summer I like to swim. I also do some cycling. I'm very fond of hockey. I try to watch every hockey match on TV. This topic was written by Sfinx from Nizhnevartovsk...

Sports and Olympic Games

We have always paid great attention to sport in our schools, colleges and universities. You can hardly find a school without a gym or a sport ground. Every city and town has a few stadiums or swimming pools where local competitions are usually held. It’s been a tradition in Russia to divide sport into professional and amateur. There are different sporting societies and clubs in Russia. Many of them take part in different tournaments and are known all over the world. A great number of world records have been set by Russian sportsmen: gymnasts, weightlifters, tennis players, swimmers, figure skaters, runners, high jumpers. Our sportsmen also participate in the Olympic games and always win a lot of gold, silver and bronze medals. The Olympic games has a very long history. They began in 777 BC in Greece and took place every four years for nearly twelve centuries at Olympia. They included many different kinds of sports. All the cities in Greece sent their best athletes to Olympia to compete i

Summer Holidays

I like to have rest at the seaside best of all. I do not like crowds when I am on holiday. My family and I always have our holiday on the coast. Sea and sunshine, that is what we look forward to every summer. Hotels at the large seaside towns are rather expensive, so we usually go to a holiday camp. Last year we spent our holidays in such a camp. Each day was full of small joys. We swam in the sea, lay in the sun, played different games and had a wonderful time. We lived there for about a month and did not even notice when the time came for us to return home. The time flew very quickly. It was a wonderful rest.

The Beatles

The English ROCK MUSIC group The Beatles gave the 1960s its characteristic musical flavor and had a profound influence on the course of popular music, equaled by few performers. The guitarists John Winston Lennon, Oct. 9, 1940; James Paul McCartney, June 18, 1942; and George Harrison, Feb. 25, 1943; and the drummer Ringo Starr, Richard Starkey, July 7, 1940, were all born and raised in Liverpool. Lennon and McCartney had played together in a group called The Quarrymen. With Harrison, they formed their own group, The Silver Beatles, in 1959, and Starr joined them in 1962. As The Beatles, they developed a local following in Liverpool clubs, and their first recordings, "Love Me Do" (1962) and "Please Please Me" (1963), quickly made them Britain's top rock group. Their early music was influenced by the American rock singers Chuck BERRY and Elvis PRESLEY, but they infused a hackneyed musical form with freshness, vitality, and wit. The release of "I Want to Hold Your Hand" in 1964 marked the beginning of the phenomenon known as "Beatlemania" in the United States. The Beatles' first U.S. tour aroused a universal mob adulation. Their concerts were scenes of mass worship, and their records sold in the millions.

Their first film, the innovative A Hard Day's Night (1964), was received enthusiastically by a wide audience that included many who had never before listened to rock music. Composing their own material (Lennon and McCartney were the major creative forces),The Beatles established the precedent for other rock groups to play their own music. Experimenting with new musical forms, they produced an extraordinary variety of songs: the childishly simple "Yellow Submarine"; the bitter social commentary of "Eleanor Rigby"; parodies of earlier pop styles; new electronic sounds; and compositions that were scored for cellos, violins, trumpets, and sitars, as well as for conventional guitars and drums. Some enthusiasts cite the albums Rubber Soul (1965) and Revolver (1966) as the apex of Beatle art, although Sergeant Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band (1967), perhaps the first rock album designed thematically as a single musical entity, is more generally considered their triumph. The group disbanded in 1970, after the release of their final album, Let It Be, to pursue individual careers. On Dec. 8, 1980, John Lennon was fatally shot in New York City. In 1991, Paul McCartney's classical composition Liverpool Oratorio was performed to some acclaim in Britain and the United States.

The British press

The press is a mirror of current events. This proves to be true when you look through any newspaper. There are a lot of photoes, articles, short and long, that inform readers of the latest events.

The Hermitage Gallery

A few words about sculptures. I saw a lot of vases, statues and fountains. The most beautiful thing I have ever seen was the fountain belonged to Alexander the Second. Among other outstanding pieces of art I saw the coach of Catherine the Second and beautiful gobelens. It took 60 years to made one of these gobelens. In conclusion, I'd like to stress that no one can see everything for the one visit. To enjoy the Hermitage Gallery you must visit it several times. The State Hermitage in St Petersburg is one of the world's most outstanding art museums. It is the largest fine arts museum in Russia. World famous is the collection of West-European paintings covering a span of about seven hundreds years, from the 13th to the 20th century, and comprising works by Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, Titian, El Greco. Velasquez, Murillo; outstanding paintings by Rembrandt, Vandyke, Rubens; a remarkable group of French 18th-centure canvases, and Impressionist and Post Impressionist paintings. The collection illustrates the art of Italy, Sp

The History of Moscow

Moscow has survived many disasters, including conflagrations, plagues, riots, revolts, sieges, and foreign occupation. In September 1812, during the Napoleonic Wars, the city was occupied by the armies of Napoleon. Russian patriots set fire to the city soon after his entry; the resultant French withdrawal from Russia led to Napoleon's downfall. The Moscow populace figured significantly in the Revolution of 1905 and the Revolution of 1917. In 1918 the new government of Russia moved to Moscow, and in 1922 the city was officially made the Soviet capital. Large sections of the city were rebuilt and modernized after the Bolshevik victory. In December 1941, during World War II, powerful German armies were decisively repulsed at the approaches to Moscow. In 1991 the city was the hub of the discussions and confrontations that led to the dissolution of the USSR, and in 1993 was the site of an armed clash between the forces of President Boris Yeltsin and conservative legislators. More than 140 people died in the uprising before Yeltsin's government reclaimed control.

The Kremlin

Within the Kremlin walls is one of the most striking and beautiful architectural ensembles in the world: a combination of churches and palaces, which are open to the public and are among the city's most popular tourist attractions, and the highest offices of the state, which are surrounded by strict security. Around the central Cathedral Square (Sobornaya Ploshchad) are grouped three magnificent cathedrals, superb examples of Russian church architecture at its height in the late 15th and early 16th centuries. These and the other churches in the Kremlin ceased functioning as places of worship after the Revolution and are now museums. The white stone Cathedral of the Assumption (Uspensky Sobor) is the oldest, built in 1475-79 in the Italianate-Byzantine style. Its pure, simple, and beautifully proportioned lines and elegant arches are crowned by five golden domes. The Orthodox metropolitans and patriarchs of the 14th to the 18th century are buried there. Across the square is the Cathedral of the Annunciation (Blagoveshchensky Sobor), built in 1484-89 by craftsmen from Pskov; though burned in 1547, it was rebuilt in 1562-64. Its cluster of chapels is topped by golden roofs and domes. Inside are a number of early 15th-century icons attributed to Theophanes the Greek and to Andrey Rublyov, considered by many to be the greatest of all Russian icon painters. The third cathedral, the Archangel (Arkhangelsky), was rebuilt in 1505-08; in it are buried the princes of Moscow and tsars of Russia (except Boris Godunov) up to the founding of St. Petersburg. Just off the square stands the splendid, soaring white bell tower of Ivan the Great; built in the 16th century and damaged in 1812, it was restored a few years later. At its foot is the enormous Tsar Bell (Tsar-Kolokol), cast in 1733-35 but never rung. Nearby is the Tsar Cannon (Tsar-Pushka), cast in 1586. Beside the gun are located the mid-17th-century Cathedral of the Twelve Apostles (Sobor Dvenadtsati Apostolov) and the adjoining Patriarchal Palace. On the west of Cathedral Square is a group of palaces of various periods; the Palace of Facets (Granovitaya Palata)--so called from the exterior finish of faceted, white stone squares--was built in 1487-91. Behind it is the Terem Palace of 1635-36, which incorporates several older churches, including the Resurrection of Lazarus (Voskreseniye Lazarya), dating from 1393. Both becam

The Russian Federation

The Russian Federation is the largest country in the world. It occupies about one-seventh of the earth's surface. It covers the eastern part of Europe and the northern part of Asia. Its total area is about 17 million square kilometers. The country is washed by 12 seas of 3 oceans: the Pacific, the Arctic and the Atlantic. In the south Russia borders on China, Mongolia, Korea, Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan. In the west it borders on Norway, Finland, the Baltic States, Byelorussia, the Ukraine. It also has a sea-borders with the USA. There is hardly a country in the world where s

Theatre, Music and Cinema

Theatre is a place where you can see a play staged. It is also one of entertainments. A theatre consists of two parts: the stage

The USA

The United States of America is the fourth largest country in the world (after Russia, Canada and China). It occupies the southern part of North America and stretches from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean. It also includes Alaska in the north and Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean. The total area of the country is about nine and a half million square kilometres. The USA borders on Canada in the north and on Mexico in the south. It also has a sea-boarder with Russia. The USA is ma

Thomas Jefferson

Thomas Jefferson one of the American President of the past was born in Virginia in 1743. When he was 14 years old, his father died and the young boy was left to choose for himself what to do. Jefferson studied literature and languages. He also studied to be a lawyer, and later he wrote many of the Virginia laws. One of the laws for which he worked very much was a law to allow many child to go to school free. Schools in America were only for the children whose parents were rich.

When Jefferson was still a young man he was one of those who wanted freedom from England. His most outstanding archivment was as chief author of the Declaration of Independence, a statement of human rights and liberties. It was read to the happy people on the 4th of July, 1776. Jefferson also drew up the constitution for his state, Virginia, and served as its governor. He was sent to France as the foreign minister of the United States of America and afterwards was President's Washington secretary of state. A few years later he became the country's third president, serving in this position for 2 terms. The author of the Declaration of

There is no frigate like a book

An English author once wrote: “Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed or digested.” This quotation tells us how to read books of different kinds. Most travel books are to be tasted. It’s enough to dip into them and read bits here, bits there. If you are fond of crime stories you will read them quickly, you’ll ‘swallow’ them and then there are books that you’ll read slowly and carefully. If a book is on important subject and a subject you are interested in you will want to chew it and digest it. And you’ll want to weight what the author says and consider his ideas and arguments.

TV in Russia. My favorite TV programme

It is used regularly to give information on everything from weather conditions to wildlife. There are a lot of kinds of programmes such as current affairs, documentaries, sports, films, plays, the arts, news, educational and variety shows. As for me, my favourite programme is Akuna Matata on RTR, often on every Friday. On the one hand it is a very popular show, and on the other hand it is a serious programme in which the problems of teenagers are discussed. There is always a new hero of the problem with his own problem, character and view on the surrounding world. There are always two tribunes with old generation and with new generation, who express their opinions on the hero’s story. As you can see Akuna Matata is very is a valuable and informative TV programme. I think that the aim of this programme is to help teenagers to solve their problems and to cope with their difficulties. Old and new generations try to find new solutions to old problems of teenagers and they try to come to an agreement. Apart from its entertainment value, this programme provides useful topics or conversations. And, of cource, the talk-show host, is of great importance, her name is Maria Fillipenko.

Typical student

Who are they and how they look? In the streets, in parks, cafes, on discos, everywhere you can see young people standing together and talking about something with great interest. What are they talking about? They talk about studying, music, clothes and about money, which will finish soon. But in spite of the problem they are never sad. At the same time students walk in town, go to cafes, discos and concerts. Students become friends very fast and